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在sh interface时, 可能会有几种情况:
1. Router#sh int e0
 Ethernet0 is up,line protocol is up

 第一个信息Serial0 is up是考察到Physical Layer,它会检查连线否有接上或启动。
 第二个信息line protocol is up是考察到 Data-link Layer,会从连接端寻找 keepalive 的信号是否存在,用来确定信号是否断掉。
 若 interface 与 line protocol都是up的,那表示目前此介面的运作正常。

2. Router#sh int s0
 Serial0 is up,line protocol is down

 若interface up, 但line protocol down,这是Data-link Layer的问题。
 可能时间,keepalive问题,或是frame封装的问题.检查一下是否需要设定clock rate,以及两边封装方式是否一样。
 一般来说clock rate的可能性更大。

3. Router#sh int s0
 Serial0 is down,line protocol is down

 这个表示interface及line protocol都没作用,基本上是Physical Layer的问题。

4. Router#sh int s0
 Serial0 is administratively down,line protocol is down

 这可能有任何一端没有启用interface, 请到interface配置下使用no shutdown的命令,如:
 Router#conf t
 Router(config)#int s0
 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

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